Arbitrage Bonds: Maximizing Savings Through Municipal Refinancing

Arbitrage Bonds: Maximizing Savings Through Municipal Refinancing

4 Min.

Municipalities utilize arbitrage bonds as a financial tool to replace higher-interest-rate bonds with lower-interest-rate alternatives, effectively refinancing their debt. This helps municipalities take advantage of lower prevailing interest rates in the market and reduce borrowing costs. The process involves issuing new bonds with lower coupon rates and using the funds to acquire higher-yielding U.S. Treasury securities. By doing so, municipalities can strategically minimize borrowing expenses. However, it's important to consider the tax implications of arbitrage bonds, as they may result in taxable income for bondholders and potential payments to the IRS.


Arbitrage bonds are a financial tool used by municipalities to optimize their debt management strategies. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of arbitrage bonds, exploring what they are, how they work, and the implications of utilizing them. By the end of this comprehensive guide, you'll have a clear understanding of how municipalities leverage arbitrage bonds to reduce their borrowing costs effectively.

Refinancing With Arbitrage Bonds

Arbitrage bonds represent a method for municipalities to refinance higher-interest-rate bonds with lower-interest-rate alternatives before the call date of the higher-rate bonds. This financial maneuver allows municipalities to benefit from the prevailing lower interest rates in the market compared to the coupon rates on their existing bond issues.

Municipal bonds inherently possess a call option, enabling issuers to redeem bonds before maturity and refinance them at more favorable interest rates. The date on which this redemption can occur is known as the call date, and issuers are typically prohibited from buying back the bonds before this date.

The Refunding Strategy

When interest rates decline before the call date, municipalities have the opportunity to issue new bonds, often referred to as "arbitrage bonds," with a coupon rate that reflects the lower market rates. This process is called refunding. The proceeds from the issuance of these new bonds are used to acquire U.S. Treasury securities with yields higher than those of the refunding bonds. These Treasuries are then deposited into an escrow account.

On the first call date of the outstanding higher-coupon bonds, the escrowed Treasuries are sold to redeem or refund the higher-coupon bonds. This strategic financial move allows municipalities to minimize their borrowing costs by capitalizing on the difference between the lower market interest rates and the higher coupon rates of their existing bonds.

Mechanics of an Arbitrage Bond

The heart of an arbitrage bond transaction involves purchasing U.S. Treasury bills that serve as the means to pre-refund an outstanding issue before its call date. For this strategy to be profitable, the coupon rate on the arbitrage bonds should be significantly lower than the coupon rate on the higher-interest bonds. If the savings achieved through refinancing and refunding are overshadowed by the issuance and marketing costs associated with the new bonds, the arbitrage exercise might not be cost-effective.

Tax Implications of Arbitrage Bonds

Municipal bonds are renowned for their tax-exempt status. However, this exemption is conditional on the bonds financing community-benefiting projects. When refunding bonds are not used for community development but are instead aimed at profiting from yield differentials, they are classified as arbitrage bonds and are subject to taxation.

If the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) categorizes a refunding bond as an arbitrage bond, the interest income is included in the gross income of each bondholder for federal income tax purposes. To avoid this tax liability, the issuer may make payments to the IRS. These payments act as a form of compensation, persuading the IRS not to declare the bonds taxable.

Arbitrage bonds can also qualify for temporary tax exemption, provided that the proceeds from net sales and investments are designated for future projects. However, if the intended project experiences significant delays or is canceled, the municipality may face taxation consequences.


Arbitrage bonds are a financial instrument that allows municipalities to strategically manage their debt by refinancing higher-interest bonds with lower-interest options. This practice enables municipalities to capitalize on market interest rate differentials, ultimately reducing their borrowing costs. However, it's important to consider the tax implications associated with arbitrage bonds, as their use may lead to taxable income for bondholders and potential payments to the IRS. Understanding the mechanics and implications of arbitrage bonds is crucial for municipalities looking to optimize their financial strategies and minimize borrowing expenses.

Municipal Bond
Arbitrage Bond
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)