Automated Market Makers or AMMs Explained

Automated Market Makers or AMMs Explained

Automated market makers hold a significant position in decentralized finance (DeFi). These mechanical entities are ever-ready to provide a price between two assets. While Uniswap relies on a straightforward formula, AMMs like Curve and Balancer utilize more intricate algorithms.

AMMs not only facilitate trustless trading but also present an opportunity for individuals to become market makers. By contributing liquidity to a liquidity pool, practically anyone can partake in an exchange as a market maker and earn fees for their liquidity provision.

The user-friendly and straightforward nature of AMMs has solidified their importance within the DeFi space. The concept of decentralizing market-making perfectly aligns with the overarching vision of cryptocurrency.


The rise of DeFi has been remarkable, capturing significant attention on platforms such as Ethereum and BNB Smart Chain. Within this ecosystem, yield farming has gained popularity as a method for distributing tokens, while the tokenization of BTC on Ethereum and the surge in flash loan volumes have further fueled the momentum. Simultaneously, automated market maker protocols, like Uniswap, have consistently demonstrated impressive trading volumes, ample liquidity, and a growing user base.

Automated market makers operate by providing a swift and effortless establishment of markets for the latest food coin. They can compete with traditional order book exchanges and have consistently demonstrated impressive trading volumes, ample liquidity, and a growing user base. Let's explore this in more detail.

What Is an Automated Market Maker?

Automated market makers (AMMs) serve as decentralized exchange (DEX) protocols that rely on mathematical formulas to determine asset prices. Instead of relying on traditional order books, AMMs utilize pricing algorithms to determine the value of assets. Each AMM protocol employs its own unique formula, such as Uniswap's x * y = k, where x represents the quantity of one token in the liquidity pool, y represents the quantity of the other token, and k is a fixed constant to maintain total liquidity. Other AMMs use different formulas tailored to their specific use cases, but the underlying principle remains the same: prices are determined algorithmically.

Unlike traditional market making, which typically involves well-established firms with substantial resources and complex strategies, AMMs decentralize the process and allow virtually anyone to create a market on a blockchain. They enable individuals to participate as market makers, providing liquidity to the exchange and earning fees in return. By decentralizing market making, AMMs simplify and democratize the process, aligning with the vision of decentralization in the world of cryptocurrency.

How Does an AMM Work?

AMMs function distinctly compared to traditional order book exchanges. While both types of exchanges involve trading pairs, such as ETH/DAI, AMMs operate without the need for a specific counterparty. Instead of interacting with another trader, users engage directly with a smart contract that acts as the market maker.

AMMs can be seen as utilizing a peer-to-contract (P2C) framework. They remove the requirement for counterparties in the traditional sense, as trades occur between users and smart contracts. Since AMMs lack an order book, conventional order types are absent. Instead, the price of an asset for buying or selling is determined by a formula. It is worth mentioning that future AMM designs may seek to address this limitation.

While counterparties are not necessary, someone still plays a pivotal role in creating the market. This responsibility falls on liquidity providers (LPs), who contribute to the liquidity of the AMM ecosystem by providing funds to the smart contract. LPs are essential users who ensure the availability of assets and enable smooth trading on the AMM platform. Their participation is vital in sustaining the liquidity and efficiency of AMMs.

What Is a Liquidity Pool?

Liquidity providers play a vital role in DeFi by contributing funds to liquidity pools. These pools serve as reservoirs of assets that traders can engage with. LPs earn fees from the trades that occur within their respective pools. For instance, platforms like Uniswap require LPs to deposit an equivalent value of two tokens, such as 50% ETH and 50% DAI, into the designated pool.

Adding funds to a liquidity pool is a straightforward process, and the rewards for LPs are determined by the specific protocol they engage with. Some platforms may charge varying fees to attract more liquidity providers to their pools. The significance of attracting liquidity lies in mitigating slippage, which refers to the potential price impact when executing larger orders. With greater liquidity in the pool, the likelihood of substantial slippage decreases. This, in turn, attracts more trading volume to the platform, creating a positive feedback loop.

It's important to note that slippage levels can vary depending on the design of the AMM employed by the protocol. AMMs use mathematical algorithms to determine the pricing of assets based on the ratio changes between the tokens in the liquidity pool after each trade. Extreme changes in the token ratio can result in higher slippage. Additionally, AMMs operate on formulas like x * y = k, making it impossible to purchase all the assets from a liquidity pool if either token's quantity approaches zero. The equation becomes invalid in such cases, preventing the complete depletion of the pool's assets.

What Is Impermanent Loss?

AMMs can be affected by impermanent loss, which occurs when the price ratio of tokens deposited in a pool changes. The extent of the loss depends on the magnitude of the ratio change. To minimize impermanent loss, it is recommended to deposit tokens with similar values, such as stablecoins or wrapped tokens, as this helps maintain a narrow price range.

In cases where the ratio changes significantly, liquidity providers may find it more profitable to hold the tokens instead of adding them to a pool. However, certain Uniswap pools like ETH/DAI have remained profitable despite their exposure to impermanent loss, thanks to the trading fees generated.

The term "impermanent loss" may be misleading since it implies that losses can be mitigated if the assets return to their original prices. In reality, if funds are withdrawn at a different price ratio, the losses are permanent. While trading fees can partially offset the losses, it is crucial to assess the risks involved in liquidity provision.


AMMs have revolutionized the DeFi industry by providing a user-friendly and efficient way to create markets. While they have some limitations compared to traditional order book exchanges, their impact on the crypto space is highly valuable.

Although current AMMs like Uniswap, Curve, and PancakeSwap are well-designed, they are still considered to be in their early stages. The future holds great potential for even more innovative AMM designs that will bring lower fees, reduced friction, and improved liquidity for all DeFi participants. These upcoming advancements are expected to enhance the overall user experience and contribute to the continuous growth of the DeFi ecosystem.