Bitcoin's Taproot Update Overview

Bitcoin's Taproot Update Overview

Taproot is a crucial upgrade implemented on the Bitcoin network on November 14, 2021. It is a significant technological advancement that ranks alongside Segregated Witness (SegWit). Its main objective is to address concerns about privacy, scalability, and security in Bitcoin comprehensively. To achieve this, Taproot modifies the scripts that operate Bitcoin, and it is combined with another related upgrade known as Schnorr signatures. These upgrades aim to enhance privacy, scalability, and security on the Bitcoin network. Taproot is a step forward in addressing these issues head-on.


Bitcoin has remained a steadfast anchor in the world of cryptocurrencies, despite facing its fair share of challenges over the years. From the notorious Mt.Gox exchange hack to the divisive Bitcoin hard forks, the crypto community has stood firmly in support of Bitcoin. However, there is a pressing issue that cannot be overlooked: privacy. Being built on a public blockchain, Bitcoin allows anyone to monitor the transactions taking place on its network, which raises significant concerns for many users.

While techniques such as coin mixing and CoinJoins offer some degree of anonymity, they fall short of providing complete privacy for Bitcoin users. Although Taproot does not entirely solve this issue, it is widely regarded as a crucial step forward in enhancing network anonymity. On 14 November 2021, after receiving approval from miners globally, the long-awaited Taproot upgrade was successfully implemented on the Bitcoin network. This upgrade holds promise for addressing Bitcoin's privacy limitations and related concerns, offering a glimmer of hope for increased transactional privacy in the future.

Known Limitations of Bitcoin Blockchain

Bitcoin, the pioneering and widely adopted cryptocurrency, is not without its flaws. One area where it falls short is transaction speed. Initially designed to handle around 7 transactions per second, as the network gained popularity and users, transaction speed and fees surged. In 2021, during a period of Bitcoin's soaring price, the average transaction fees reached a record high of approximately $60. These exorbitant fees, coupled with slow transaction speed, have impeded the development of the Bitcoin network. To address this issue, developers introduced the SegWit upgrade in 2017, allowing more transactions to be accommodated within a single block.

In addition to transaction speed, privacy has been a limitation of the Bitcoin network. Due to its transparent nature, transaction details are publicly visible. This means that by examining someone's Bitcoin address, it is possible to discern their entire transaction history. But first, you need to associate such an address with a real person and make sure it belongs to him.

Recognizing these limitations, the Bitcoin network has endeavored to implement upgrades over time. However, amending the network poses challenges due to its decentralized nature. Instead of a single individual making decisions regarding changes, the Bitcoin community achieves consensus through collective decision-making, reflecting the decentralized ethos at the core of the cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin's Taproot Upgrade

Bitcoin underwent a significant upgrade called Taproot, which brought improvements to its script and enhanced the network's privacy, efficiency, and smart contract capabilities. This upgrade considered the most notable since the introduction of SegWit in 2017, consisted of three Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs): Taproot, Tapscript, and Schnorr signatures. By implementing Taproot, Bitcoin users can enjoy enhanced transaction privacy, lower fees, and the ability to conduct more complex transactions, thereby expanding the potential use cases of the cryptocurrency.

The Taproot proposal was unveiled by developer Greg Maxwell in 2018 and was later merged into the Bitcoin Core library in 2020. The upgrade required node operators to adopt new consensus rules. After receiving support from 90% of miners, Taproot was officially activated on 14 November 2021, marking a significant milestone in Bitcoin's development and capabilities. With Taproot, Bitcoin takes a step forward in its evolution, offering improved functionality and paving the way for further innovations in the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

How Does Taproot Work?

The Taproot upgrade consists of three BIPs that collaboratively contribute to its implementation. Each BIP plays a distinct role and complements the others in various ways, working together to achieve the Taproot upgrade.

Schnorr Signatures (BIP340)

Schnorr signatures offer faster and more secure transaction validation on the Bitcoin network. Developed by Claus Schnorr, a German mathematician, and cryptographer, Schnorr signatures are known for their simplicity and efficiency in generating concise signatures. Although the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) was initially chosen by Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, the emergence of the Schnorr Digital Signature Scheme (SDSS) in Bitcoin presents new possibilities for the network.

One notable advantage of Schnorr signatures is their ability to aggregate multiple signatures from different parties into a single unique signature. This signature aggregation feature enhances efficiency and can be beneficial for complex transactions. Additionally, the Taproot upgrade enables the concealment of Bitcoin script execution, making various transactions indistinguishable to external observers. However, it's important to note that the privacy enhancements provided by Taproot do not extend to the visibility of wallet addresses involved in the transaction.

Taproot (BIP341)

Introducing enhanced scalability, transaction efficiency, and improved privacy measures, Taproot is an upgrade to the Bitcoin network. It builds upon the SegWit upgrade and incorporates the Merkelized Alternative Script Tree (MAST) technology.

Bitcoin transactions rely on public and private keys for security. However, complex transactions, such as those involving multi-signatures or timelock releases, often introduce additional data, leading to slower transaction speeds. Additionally, the transparent nature of the Bitcoin blockchain exposes transaction details, potentially compromising user privacy.

By integrating MAST into Taproot, the upgrade reduces the need for multiple inputs and signatures in complex transactions. This results in improved scalability, enabling faster transaction processing and reducing the strain on the network. Moreover, Taproot enhances privacy by committing only the essential transaction conditions to the blockchain, minimizing the exposure of sensitive information.

Tapscript (BIP342)

Tapscript is a coding language upgrade for Bitcoin Script, an integral component of the Bitcoin network. Tapscript enables the implementation of two other BIPs by introducing a set of opcodes. These opcodes are instructions that specify transaction operations, making the upgrade more flexible and creating room for new features. Tapscript also has the potential to support the development of smart contracts on the Bitcoin network, expanding its capabilities in the future.

Other Taproot Improvements

Taproot brings significant improvements to Bitcoin's privacy, scalability, and security. It reduces the amount of data required to be transferred and stored on the blockchain, resulting in enhanced network scalability. Taproot enables a higher transactions per second (TPS) rate, allowing for more efficient processing of transactions within each block. By optimizing the transaction data and reducing the required space, Taproot has the potential to lower transaction fees, benefiting users by making transactions more cost-effective. Additionally, Taproot eliminates signature malleability, a known security risk in the Bitcoin network, which can lead to the double-spending problem and compromise the integrity of the decentralized ledger.

Why Is This Update Important?

Taproot activation significantly improves the functionality of the Bitcoin network, enabling faster and more reliable transactions. With this upgrade, Bitcoin can now explore Layer 2 solutions and deploy smart contracts, expanding its potential use cases in areas like NFTs and DeFi. Lower transaction fees and improved efficiency incentivize more transactions and wider adoption. These advancements enhance Bitcoin's versatility and position it for continued growth in the digital asset space.


Anticipated enhancements come to Bitcoin with the Taproot upgrade, which is accompanied by Schnorr signatures. It offers notable improvements in privacy, scalability, and security. Additionally, these upgrades can increase interest in the Lightning Network and promote the adoption of multisig as a standard practice. Whether you are an active participant in the Bitcoin community or a user of the cryptocurrency, the improved features of Taproot will have a positive impact on your Bitcoin experience, ensuring better privacy, efficiency, and security.

Soft Fork
Segregated Witness (SegWit)
Follow us
Hexn operates under HEXN (CZ) s.r.o. and HEXN Markets LLC. HEXN (CZ) s.r.o. is incorporated in the Czech Republic with the company number 19300662, registered office at Cimburkova 916/8, Žižkov, Praha. HEXN (CZ) s.r.o. is registered as a virtual assets service provider (VASP). HEXN Markets LLC is incorporated in St. Vincent and Grenadines with the company number 2212 LLC 2022, registered office at Beachmont Business Centre, 379, Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines