Equity Markets: What You Need to Know

Equity Markets: What You Need to Know

3 Min.

Equity markets, commonly known as stock markets, play a crucial role in the economy. They facilitate the trading of company shares, allowing businesses to raise capital and investors to acquire ownership. This guide explores what equity markets are, how they operate, the various types, and provides real-world examples.


An equity market is a place where companies issue and trade shares, allowing businesses to raise capital and investors to become partial owners. This provides investors with the opportunity to potentially profit from the company's performance.

Equity markets facilitate the connection between buyers and sellers of stocks, which can be either public (listed on exchanges) or private (traded through dealers, such as over-the-counter). Companies initially start as private entities and may later become public through an IPO.

Trading in an Equity Market

Some major equity markets include the New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq, Tokyo Stock Exchange, Shanghai Stock Exchange, and Euronext Europe. Companies list their stocks on exchanges to raise capital, opting for equity financing over debt financing.

Investors bid on stocks by offering prices, while sellers specify their desired prices. Sales occur when these prices align. Market value transactions happen when buyers accept any price for a stock or when sellers are willing to sell at any price.

Stock Exchanges

Stock exchanges can be physical locations or virtual platforms. Nasdaq is a virtual trading platform where stocks are electronically traded. Electronic platforms are increasingly favored over physical exchanges.

The New York Stock Exchange is a physical stock exchange but also offers online trading options, making it a hybrid market. Many large companies list their stocks on multiple exchanges worldwide. Buyers and sellers prefer larger exchanges for more options and opportunities.

However, third-party markets have emerged, bypassing stock exchange commissions but carrying higher risks. In physical exchanges, orders are executed through open outcry, with floor brokers transmitting orders to specialists.

Physical exchanges still have a human element, but electronic communication is taking over. Brokers receive commissions for their services, but electronic trading is becoming more common.


Equity markets, also known as stock markets, are essential for the economy as they provide a platform for companies to raise capital and for investors to acquire ownership. In this comprehensive guide, we explored the basics of equity markets, including how they operate and the various types. We also discussed major stock exchanges and the shift towards electronic trading platforms. Understanding equity markets is crucial for anyone interested in investing in stocks and participating in the world of finance.

Equity Market
Over-The-Counter (OTC)
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
Initial Public Offering (IPO)