Ethereum ERC-4337 or Account Abstraction Explained

Ethereum ERC-4337 or Account Abstraction Explained

ERC-4337 is a recent Ethereum standard that enables account abstraction without consensus changes. It was deployed on the Ethereum mainnet in March 2023, allowing transactions and contract creation in a single account. This advancement may lead to easier crypto wallet designs and wider adoption.


ERC-4337 is a recent Ethereum standard that accomplishes account abstraction, a long-awaited goal for the platform. It is an Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) that has been authorized to become an Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) standard. EIPs are used to define various standards for the Ethereum platform, including core protocol specifications and contract standards. In the case of ERC-4337, it specifically sets standards for account abstraction. Originally proposed as EIP-4337 in 2021, it was officially authorized to become ERC-4337 in 2023 and deployed on the Ethereum mainnet.

Explaining ERC-4337

A new Ethereum standard called ERC-4337 was proposed to introduce account abstraction, which combines features of different account types. It was deployed on the Ethereum mainnet in March 2023, aiming to facilitate the development of user-friendly crypto wallet designs. This standard allows for the creation of a single account capable of transacting with tokens and creating contracts simultaneously, enabling various wallet functionalities such as social recovery, customization, and upgradeability. Overall, ERC-4337 brings smart contract capabilities to wallets, making it easier to implement advanced features like multi-factor authentication and automatic payments.

Reasons for ERC-4337

ERC-4337 was developed to address the limitations of existing Ethereum wallets. It introduces a unified approach by combining the functionalities of externally owned accounts and smart contract accounts. This eliminates the complexities associated with wallet setup and private key management. The goal is to provide user-friendly crypto wallets that offer enhanced security and ease of use. By unifying the account types, ERC-4337 opens the door to the deployment of various wallet features without the need for separate accounts or reliance on centralized systems.

How Does ERC-4337 Work?

The Ethereum community has been actively pursuing account abstraction, aiming to enhance the platform's functionality. While earlier proposals required consensus-layer changes, ERC-4337 takes a different approach. It introduces a higher-layer pseudo-transaction object called a UserOperation, which allows users to submit their transactions to a separate mempool. Bundlers then package these transactions into blocks, paying gas fees and receiving fees for their services. The introduction of new functions and contracts further expands the capabilities of wallets, enabling them to function as smart contracts. These developments reflect the ongoing efforts within the Ethereum community to improve the efficiency and flexibility of the platform.

ERC-4337 Goals

  • Account abstraction: The aim is to enable users to have a single account that combines the functionalities of smart contracts and externally owned accounts.
  • Decentralization: The protocol allows any bundler to participate in the process, promoting a decentralized approach.
  • Avoiding consensus changes: ERC-4337 prioritizes faster adoption by avoiding modifications to the Ethereum consensus layer, which focuses on scalability-oriented upgrades.
  • Facilitate innovative use cases: The standard opens up possibilities for various innovative applications, such as aggregated signatures, daily transaction limits, emergency account freezing, whitelisting, and privacy-preserving functionalities.
  • Time and gas savings: Bundlers can package UserOperation objects into a single transaction, potentially reducing time and gas costs associated with multiple transactions.

User Side Changes

ERC-4337 has the potential to revolutionize the crypto wallet user experience and drive increased adoption. Here are the key benefits it offers:

  • Simplified wallet setup: Users can skip the hassle of writing down seed phrases. Setting up a wallet becomes quick and easy, requiring just a few clicks.
  • Hassle-free account recovery: With multi-factor authentication and account recovery options, users no longer need to worry about losing their seed phrases. Recovery becomes a stress-free process.
  • Enhanced user-friendly features: ERC-4337 empowers users with a wide range of customized services. Auto-pay, pre-approved transactions, and bundled transactions are just a few examples of the user-friendly functions available. The possibilities are endless.
  • Improved security: By reducing the risk of human error, wallets built on ERC-4337 can potentially offer better security. Gone are the days of hiding seed phrases under the mattress. ERC-4337 aims to provide a smoother and friendlier user experience, removing a significant barrier to mass adoption.
  • Gas flexibility: Wallets utilizing ERC-4337 can now pay gas fees with various ERC-20 tokens and even beyond. Developers can build wallets that facilitate gas fee payments in different tokens, including fiat currencies.


Simplifying the user experience of crypto wallets is a key focus for enhancing adoption. ERC-4337 provides a technical foundation for the development of user-friendly crypto wallets. This standard has the potential to revolutionize the interaction between users and cryptocurrencies. The impact of ERC-4337 on user experience and the broader crypto industry is an area of ongoing interest and development.

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