Predicting Future Fossil Fuel Production Using Hubbert's Peak Theory

Predicting Future Fossil Fuel Production Using Hubbert's Peak Theory

4 Min.

Hubbert's peak theory forecasts the full cycle of fossil fuel production. Thanks to technology, we have more time before we run out of oil. Fossil fuels are finite, but not an imminent threat.


Centered around non-renewable resources, specifically oil production, Hubbert's peak theory forecasts a point where global crude oil production will peak and subsequently decline in a bell-shaped curve. It predicts that global crude oil production will reach its peak and then steadily decline in a bell-shaped curve. This theory, initially designed for oil, can also be applied to other resources.

A Deeper Look

Hubbert's peak theory, named after Marion King Hubbert, a geologist at Shell in the 1950s, suggests that oil reserves, whether on a local or global scale, will reach their maximum production in the middle of their life cycle, as indicated by the Hubbert curve. This curve is commonly used by exploration and production (E&P) companies to project future production rates. Subsequently, production will start to decline more rapidly due to resource exhaustion and diminishing returns. If new reserves aren't developed at a rate exceeding the depletion of existing ones, the world will inevitably reach peak oil since the supply of conventional light, sweet crude within the Earth's crust is finite.

Implications for the Global Economy

A potential decline in fossil fuel production has substantial implications for the global economy. It would bring about increased fuel scarcity and higher energy costs, affecting multiple industries and raising the cost of living for people. Historically, spikes in global oil prices have been linked to economic recessions. A prolonged, significant price increase due to diminishing oil reserves could result in economic stagnation, potentially leading to stagflation and reduced living standards worldwide.

Technological Advancements and Expanding Reserves

Hubbert's predictions of U.S. oil production peaking in the 1970s and global peak oil around 2000 were incorrect. Technological advancements in the oil industry have expanded recoverable reserves and improved well recovery rates. Modern 3D seismic imaging allows scientists to explore beneath the seabed, continually expanding proven reserves by discovering new oil fields.

In the 1950s, offshore drilling reached depths of 5,000 feet, but today's advanced rigs can drill up to 50,000 feet. Texas has consistently led U.S. crude oil production, with annual production surpassing 1.26 billion barrels in 1972. Innovations like hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and horizontal drilling raised annual production to over 1.8 billion barrels in 2019, significantly increasing America's recoverable reserves. Despite becoming a net exporter of petroleum products, the U.S. still imports crude oil. Advanced 3D seismic imaging has played a pivotal role in discovering new oil fields.

Fossil Fuel Reserves and the Future of Production

The oil industry, exemplified by companies like Schlumberger, no longer frets about running out of oil. The BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021 reports global proven oil reserves at approximately 1.73 trillion barrels as of the end of 2020, with this number expected to rise as advanced technologies expand exploration opportunities. Similarly, coal reserves are estimated to last about 150 years, natural gas reserves for at least 50 years, and potential natural gas hydrates could fuel the world for a millennium, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

These substantial known and projected reserves indicate that the peak in fossil fuel production is distant. However, it's essential to recognize that fossil fuels are finite. Peak oil remains a future concern, contingent on the timing and rate of production decline and the adoption of alternative energy sources. Hubbert's peak theory poses a relatively minor economic challenge.


The depletion of fossil fuels has the potential to significantly impact civilization. However, current proven reserves indicate a substantial supply of fossil fuels. The more urgent issue lies in the environmental impact of using fossil fuels. To address this concern, significant progress has been made in transitioning away from fossil fuels. This includes the adoption of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources. If widely utilized, these alternatives can help mitigate concerns about fossil fuel depletion.

Fossil Fuel
Hubbert's Peak Theory