The Rise and Fall of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS)

The Rise and Fall of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS)

4 Min.

The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), also known as "Whoops," was formed in the 1950s to provide electrical power to the Pacific Northwest. It embarked on a plan to build five nuclear power plants financed by bonds. However, it faced issues such as cost overruns, mismanagement, and safety concerns, leading to the default on $2.25 billion worth of municipal bonds in the 1980s.


In the 1950s, the Washington Public Power Supply System was established with a noble mission - to ensure a stable source of electrical power for the Pacific Northwest. The initiative began with the construction of the Packwood Lake Dam, which, unfortunately, suffered from significant delays, offering an early sign of challenges that would plague WPPSS in the years to come.

WPPSS and the Clean Energy Vision

The 1960s brought a surge of interest in clean and affordable nuclear power. WPPSS, colloquially referred to as "Whoops," recognized an opportunity to meet the region's growing energy demands. Their vision was to create a system of five nuclear power plants, funded through the issuance of public bonds and repaid with proceeds from plant operations. As a result, bonds were issued, setting in motion an ambitious plan.

Troubles at the Heart

WPPSS's ambitious plan faced a trifecta of challenges:

  • Cost Overruns: Cost overruns became an endemic issue, leading to massive budget discrepancies. A glaring example of mismanagement was the incessant redesign and reconstruction of a simple pipe hanger - a bracket to secure pipes - which incurred escalating costs with each iteration.
  • Sloppy Management: WPPSS struggled with mismanagement issues. Contractors, accustomed to government inefficiency, overcharged and under-delivered on various aspects of the project. This inefficiency resulted in the need for more stringent safety regulations mid-construction, as mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This, in turn, led to significant portions of the already constructed facilities being torn down and redesigned, adding to costs and delays.
  • Public Safety Concerns: Growing safety concerns emerged in the wake of the Three Mile Island incident and other nuclear disasters. Some cities began boycotting nuclear power even before WPPSS's plants were operational, further complicating the already dire situation.

The Looming Default

By the early 1980s, only one of WPPSS's five nuclear plants was close to completion. Additionally, a reassessment of nuclear power's environmental impact tarnished its reputation as a clean energy source. The cost overruns had reached a staggering $24 billion, making it nearly impossible to recoup funds with the projected sales. Consequently, construction was halted on all plants, except for the second one, which was nearing completion.

As the financial situation worsened, WPPSS faced an inevitable and crushing default. In the 1980s, the organization was forced to default on $2.25 billion worth of municipal bonds, sending shockwaves through the financial markets.

A Bittersweet Resolution

Although the second plant finally became operational in 1984, it provided little solace to investors. On Christmas Eve in 1988, a settlement was reached, offering a meager return to the bondholders. Under the terms of the settlement, investors received a mere ten to forty cents per dollar invested, marking a bitter conclusion to WPPSS's ambitious, yet ill-fated, endeavor.


The Washington Public Power Supply System, also humorously known as "Whoops," started with a mission to provide a consistent source of electrical power to the Pacific Northwest. However, their ambitious plan to build five nuclear power plants financed by bonds crumbled under the weight of cost overruns, mismanagement, and public safety concerns. The eventual default on $2.25 billion worth of municipal bonds in the 1980s marked a financial catastrophe, and the subsequent settlement offered little solace to investors. The story of WPPSS serves as a stark reminder of the perils of mismanagement and overambitious projects in the realm of public utilities and infrastructure.

Municipal Bond
Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS)
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