What Is a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII)?

What Is a Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII)?

The Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) program was introduced by the Chinese government in 2002. This program offers licensed international investors the chance to invest in China's stock exchanges. Through the QFII program, foreign institutional investors can purchase and sell A-shares of Chinese companies denominated in yuan. Another program, the Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (RQFII), is similar to QFII but places fewer limitations on overseas investors, making direct investment in China's domestic capital markets more accessible.


In 2002, the People's Republic of China initiated the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) program, granting specific licensed international investors the opportunity to engage in transactions within the stock exchanges of Shanghai and Shenzhen. This landmark move marked a pivotal shift in China's financial landscape. Before the QFII program's implementation, stringent capital controls barred investors from foreign nations from participating in the buying and selling of stocks on Chinese exchanges.

Exploring the QFII Program: Unlocking Opportunities in Chinese Capital Markets

In 2002, the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) program was introduced, allowing licensed institutional investors to engage in the trading of mainland China-based companies' yuan-denominated A-shares. However, specific quotas were in place to regulate foreign access to these shares, with the Chinese government employing them as a means to manage foreign investments in China's capital markets.

A significant development occurred in April 2012 when the QFII program's quota surged from $30 billion to $80 billion, marking a noteworthy expansion a decade after its inception. These quotas, administered by China's State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), are subject to adjustments in response to the prevailing economic and financial conditions within the nation. To further encourage foreign investment, SAFE declared the removal of quota restrictions in September 2019.

Within the QFII framework, eligible investments encompass a range of financial instruments, including listed stocks (excluding foreign-oriented shares), treasury bonds, corporate debentures, convertible bonds, and other assets authorized by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC).

QFII Eligibility Evolution: CSRC Reforms

In 2002, the CSRC unveiled the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) program, setting forth specific prerequisites for investor participation. Qualifications varied based on the nature of the institutional investor, such as fund management companies or insurance enterprises.

For instance, fund management companies were mandated to possess at least five years of asset management experience and assets under management (AUM) exceeding $5 billion during the preceding fiscal year. Additionally, a specified amount of foreign currency conversion into local currency was obligatory for approval.

Commencing in 2016, the CSRC initiated a sequence of reforms to the QFII program aimed at attracting greater foreign investment. Notably, the CSRC gradually relaxed eligibility criteria for QFII applicants. In 2019, it introduced streamlined regulations that eliminated the AUM requirements and the prerequisite of years of experience for foreign investors.

QFII vs. RQFII Programs

In December 2011, the CSRC launched the Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (RQFII) program, mirroring the QFII program's objective of granting foreign investors access to China's stock exchanges.

Distinguishing features between the RQFII and QFII programs primarily revolve around facilitating investor participation, particularly for those encountering barriers with the QFII program. Notably, QFII participants must convert their foreign currency into renminbi before venturing into Chinese securities investments. Conversely, RQFII participants are exempt from this requirement and can directly engage in China's domestic capital markets.

Notable Changes in QFII Program Regulations

Until June 2018, foreign institutions investing in China's stock and bond markets through the QFII program faced limitations. They were constrained to repatriate a maximum of 20% of their investments each month, coupled with a three-month "lock-up" restriction for initial fund transfers.

However, a significant shift occurred in mid-June 2018 when China eliminated both the 20% remittance cap and the three-month lock-up requirement for both new and existing QFII participants. As an added benefit, China granted QFIIs the authority to engage in hedging activities to manage foreign exchange risks.

These rule revisions, combined with removing quota constraints, reflect China's efforts to enhance the appeal of its bond and stock markets among international investors. In 2019, China's securities regulator unveiled plans to merge the QFII and RQFII programs as part of broader reforms to bolster foreign investor engagement.


The QFII program, launched by China in 2002, opened doors for licensed international investors to access Chinese stock exchanges and trade yuan-denominated A-shares. Initial restrictions included quotas and currency conversion requirements, but recent reforms, including the introduction of the RQFII program, have simplified foreign investments. These changes align with China's aim to attract foreign capital and promote a more inclusive environment in its financial markets. Plans to merge the QFII and RQFII programs signal China's commitment to enhancing foreign investor participation.

Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII)
Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (RQFII)
China's State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE)