What Is Closet Indexing?
Closet indexing is a strategy for purchasing funds that claims to actively invest in different assets, but, in reality, ends up with a portfolio that is very similar to its benchmark. This practice is generally viewed negatively because it results in higher fees for investors who pay a management fee for fund managers who simply mimic an index fund, giving a false impression of their management abilities. To determine if a portfolio is a closet index, metrics such as R squared and active share can be used to measure its statistical deviation from the benchmark index.
Closet indexing, a strategy employed by certain funds, refers to the active pursuit of investments while ultimately maintaining a portfolio closely mirroring the benchmark. This approach allows portfolio managers to attain returns akin to an underlying benchmark, such as the S&P 500, without replicating it precisely. The adoption of closet indexing has gained momentum due to prolonged periods of subpar performance and the ongoing transition from active to passive management.
The continuous shift from active to passive management has resulted in significant asset flows, with hundreds of millions moving from active to passive funds consistently over multiple years. This trend places considerable pressure on fund managers, driven by concerns that the passive industry may lead to the elimination of stock-picking roles.
How Does Closet Indexing Work?
Closet indexing involves aligning with an index in terms of weighting, industry sector, or geography. Managers aiming to achieve returns comparable to the benchmark index are incentivized to closely match its performance. Even if the fund's performance slightly lags behind the benchmark after accounting for fees, the manager may still be praised for their perceived stock-picking prowess.
Investors often view closet indexing unfavorably, as they could opt for a lower-fee index fund instead. Identifying closet indexing may not be immediately apparent, but a thorough examination of the prospectus can reveal a fund's actual holdings. Various metrics, such as R Squared and tracking error, provide insights into a portfolio's statistical deviation from the benchmark index. R Squared, a statistical measure representing the percentage of a fund's adherence or deviation from a benchmark, and tracking error, which signifies the variance between a fund's returns and the benchmark (active risk), serve as key indicators. Another metric, active share, determines the percentage of holdings differing from the benchmark index; a portfolio with an active share between 20% and 60% is deemed a closet indexer.
Disadvantages of Closet Indexing
A primary concern among investors regarding closet indexing lies in the persistently elevated fees charged by active managers despite adopting a passive strategy. This discrepancy places an undue burden on investors who bear higher costs for comparable or subpar performance. Opting for a fund with a substantial active share does not guarantee superior returns. Ultimately, actively managed funds that outperform benchmark returns typically feature lower fees compared to their conventionally managed counterparts.
Closet indexing, a strategy used by some funds, involves actively pursuing investments that closely mimic the benchmark. This approach, viewed negatively by investors, leads to higher fees for replicated index fund performance, creating a misleading impression of management skills. Metrics like R squared and active share are crucial for identifying closet indexing and assessing the statistical deviation from the benchmark. The ongoing shift from active to passive management raises concerns for fund managers, highlighting the need to understand a fund's true nature and performance indicators amid the persistent issue of high fees associated with closet indexing.