What Is GMX?

What Is GMX?

9 Min.

GMX, an innovative platform, offers traders a decentralized and permissionless perpetual swap and spot exchange experience. By simply connecting their wallets, traders gain seamless access to on-chain cryptocurrency trading. The GMX protocol introduces a versatile native token, GMX, serving as a multifaceted instrument for governance, utility, and value accrual. Users can actively participate in the ecosystem by staking GMX tokens, enabling them to earn a proportionate share of GMX's protocol fees while enjoying additional incentives. Moreover, GMX ensures compatibility with the Arbitrum and Avalanche networks, expanding its reach and accessibility to a wider audience.


The emergence of blockchain technology revolutionized the financial landscape, particularly through its application in cryptocurrency. This breakthrough laid the foundation for decentralized finance (DeFi) to flourish. In 2020, DeFi gained widespread acknowledgment, earning the moniker "DeFi summer." As an embodiment of this revolutionary movement, GMX exemplifies the feasibility of decentralized leveraged perpetual and spot exchange trading. Unveiling a trading experience akin to centralized exchanges, GMX empowers users to engage directly from their personal cryptocurrency wallets. This seamless integration bridges the gap between traditional and decentralized finance, offering a novel and secure trading environment.


Enabling seamless cryptocurrency trading directly from users' crypto wallets, GMX stands as a decentralized exchange for spot and perpetual transactions involving popular cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH. Functioning similarly to centralized exchanges, GMX empowers its users to engage in spot swaps and trade perpetual futures with leverage of up to 50x. The key distinction lies in the fact that users retain custody of their assets by leveraging cryptocurrency wallets.


With a vision to enhance the trading experience, GMX prioritizes low swap fees and zero-price impact trades. This is made possible through the utilization of its native multi-asset pool, GLP, which not only facilitates trading but also generates fees for liquidity providers. Moreover, GMX leverages Chainlink Oracles to ensure dynamic pricing by aggregating prices from other high-volume exchanges.

GMX embarked on its journey by launching on the Arbitrum One blockchain, coinciding with the network's inception in September 2021. Arbitrum One, an Ethereum layer-2 Rollup, presents a scalable solution designed to expedite Ethereum smart contract operations. Expanding its reach further, GMX expanded its deployment to Avalanche in January 2022. Avalanche, renowned for its high-speed and EVM compatibility, offers an optimal blockchain infrastructure for GMX's operations.

The Inner Workings of GMX

Within GMX, trading operations are facilitated through the utilization of an extensive multi-asset pool known as GLP. This pool comprises a diverse composition, consisting of stablecoins (50-55%), ETH (25%), BTC (20%), and a selection of other altcoins such as Chainlink and Uniswap (5-10%).

The addition of liquidity to the ecosystem occurs through the minting of GMX Liquidity Provider Tokens (GLP) by users. By engaging in this process, liquidity providers earn an impressive 70% share of all fees generated on the respective blockchain. Notably, unlike certain liquidity pools, GLP eliminates the risk of impermanent loss.

Anyone has the opportunity to become a liquidity supplier to the GLP pool and, in turn, earn lucrative fees. Traders seeking to engage in perpetual swaps or spot trading can seamlessly utilize the assets supplied within the pool. Remarkably, the GLP pool serves as a counterparty to traders, wherein GLP token holders, who contribute liquidity for leverage trading, profit from the losses incurred by traders, and vice versa.

The GLP token possesses unique functionalities, allowing it to be minted using any of the index assets and redeemed for any index asset. Distinguished from the GMX token, the GLP token is automatically staked and non-transferable. Notably, the price, rewards, and index composition of GLP may vary across the Arbitrum and Avalanche networks, providing distinctive characteristics on each blockchain.

GMX Token

The GMX token stands as a versatile utility and governance token within the exchange ecosystem. Token holders possess the privilege of utilizing the GMX token to actively participate in voting on proposals that shape the future trajectory of the exchange.

Furthermore, stakeholders who choose to stake their GMX tokens are entitled to three additional rewards, meticulously designed by the protocol to benefit users. Firstly, GMX stakers receive 30% of all protocol fees generated, which encompass market making, swap fees, and leverage trading. These fees are disbursed in either ETH or AVAX, ensuring a fair and equitable distribution.

Secondly, stakers earn escrowed GMX tokens known as esGMX. These esGMX tokens can be staked for additional rewards or vested over a period of 12 months. The vesting process gradually converts esGMX tokens back into GMX tokens, preventing immediate selling and serving as a mechanism to mitigate inflation.

Lastly, stakers are rewarded with Multiplier Points, enhancing their overall yield and incentivizing long-term commitment without contributing to token inflation. This dual incentive framework bolsters dedication to the GMX token and reinforces the ethos of decentralized ownership within the platform.

As for token supply, the GMX token boasts a maximum cap of 13.25 million tokens, with approximately 8.2 million tokens currently in circulation. Notably, more than 83% of these circulating tokens are currently staked, showcasing a substantial level of engagement and participation among GMX token holders.

The Distinctive Features of GMX

The Trading System

With GMX, traders gain access to a seamless leveraged trading experience facilitated through a user-friendly swap interface, reminiscent of traditional trading platforms. Notably, GMX operates on a self-custodial and trustless framework, empowering individuals to engage in cryptocurrency trading directly from their private wallets.

Through its innovative dual exchange model, GMX supports both spot swaps and leveraged trading of perpetual swaps. This unique approach enhances capital efficiency by harnessing the high asset utilization of the GLP pool. By leveraging this pool, user deposits can generate additional yield, eliminating idle assets and optimizing trading potential.

One noteworthy advantage offered by GMX is the ability to enter and exit trading positions without incurring any price impact. This advantageous design enables traders to secure better entry prices compared to order book-based exchanges that may suffer from slippage-related issues. Additionally, GMX employs a combination of Chainlink Oracles and other reliable price feeds, smoothing out price fluctuations and safeguarding positions against temporary liquidation wicks. This proactive measure ensures a safer trading environment for users.

The Ecosystem

GMX places great emphasis on cultivating a vibrant community, dedicated to fostering the DeFi mindset of active engagement and collaborative tool-building.

This commitment to community-driven initiatives is evident through the array of tools that have been developed. These include a Telegram positions bot, the gmx.house leaderboard, the gmxstats.com page, Dune Analytics Dashboards, and various calculators catering to the needs of traders, stakers, and liquidity providers. These valuable tools empower users to make informed decisions and optimize their engagement with the GMX ecosystem. Moreover, GMX actively collaborates with other projects, expanding the scope of DeFi functionality through the integration of GMX's versatile and composable lego blocks.

Communication within the GMX ecosystem is primarily driven by the community itself. A notable example is the community-led weekly newsletter known as The Blueberry Pulse, which serves as a comprehensive source of updates and developments within the GMX ecosystem. In addition, The Blueberry Podcast provides a valuable audio format for sharing insights and updates with the community.

These community-driven initiatives serve as the backbone of GMX's engagement strategy, ensuring transparent and inclusive communication while fostering a strong sense of belonging within the GMX community.

How to Use GMX


GMX presents its intuitive trading interface, seamlessly integrating with the price chart for enhanced user experience. Initiating a leveraged trade is as simple as selecting either the "Long" or "Short" option, allowing traders to set their preferred direction. Additionally, GMX offers convenient and cost-effective spot swaps, accessible by clicking on the "Swap" tab within the interface, enabling swift token exchanges within the GLP pool.

The trading process involves selecting two tokens, with the top token serving as collateral and the token below representing the asset to be traded. To determine the extent of borrowing from the GLP pool, traders can utilize the leverage slider. Moreover, GMX provides a range of order options, including limit orders, take profit, and stop loss orders, further enhancing trading flexibility.

Traders can conveniently monitor their open trades under the "Positions" section, where the option to "Edit" facilitates collateral deposits or withdrawals. It's important to note that both the opening and closing of a leveraged trade incur a 0.1 percent fee based on the position size. Furthermore, traders are subject to an hourly borrowing fee that varies based on utilization. For more comprehensive guidance, detailed instructions can be found on GMX's dedicated trading help page.


Begin the process of staking your GMX tokens and unlocking lucrative rewards by establishing a connection between your wallet and the platform. Upon successfully connecting your wallet, navigate to the GMX user interface and locate the prominent "Stake" button.

Upon clicking this button, a transaction confirmation prompt will appear in your wallet interface, allowing you to proceed with the staking process on-chain. Once confirmed, you will immediately commence earning a substantial 30% share of all GMX's protocol fees. In addition to this, you will also accrue esGMX tokens and Multiplier Points as supplementary incentives for your participation.

To provide utmost transparency, the GMX user interface prominently displays the three distinct types of rewards that you will witness steadily accumulating under the section labeled "Total Rewards." Should you wish to maximize your yield and further optimize your rewards, simply click the "Compound" button. This action facilitates the staking of your earned rewards, allowing you to compound your yield and enhance your overall earnings.


GMX has revolutionized cryptocurrency trading, offering transparent and decentralized exchange services accessible to all wallet holders. Traders can leverage GMX's perpetual swap and spot exchange platform. Furthermore, by owning GMX tokens, users not only reap numerous advantages but also actively participate in the platform's governance. The GMX community holds the power to shape the exchange's future, potentially introducing additional services to complement the existing offerings. This incredible evolution in cryptocurrency trading demonstrates the significant progress made by GMX.