What Is Proof of Work (PoW)?
Proof of Work (PoW) is a consensus algorithm commonly used by blockchain networks to secure transactions and prevent double-spending. Satoshi Nakamoto introduced PoW in the 2008 Bitcoin white paper. However, similar technologies existed before. One of the earliest examples of PoW algorithms is HashCash by Adam Back, which was designed to reduce spam by requiring senders to perform some computing before sending an email. The computational cost would be negligible for legitimate users, but could quickly accumulate for those sending spam emails in bulk.
Preventing Double-Spends on Digital Money
Digital money has a unique challenge – the possibility of double-spending. Double-spending happens when the same funds are spent more than once. This term is exclusive to the digital money context. Unlike physical cash, where you can't spend the same bill twice, digital cash can be duplicated easily. To prevent the value of the currency from collapsing because of double-spending, it is necessary to stop people from copying and spending the same units in different places.
The Necessity of Proof of Work
Proof of Work is an essential component of blockchain technology. When a user broadcasts a transaction to the network, it doesn't become immediately valid. Instead, it must first be added to the blockchain. The blockchain acts as a large database that every user can access, allowing them to verify if funds have already been spent.
To understand this concept, imagine that you and your three friends have a notepad. Whenever a transfer of units is made, it gets recorded on the notepad. However, every transaction also refers to the transaction where the funds originated from. For example, if Bob pays Carol two units, the entry would say "Bob pays Carol two units from this earlier transaction with Alice." This system creates a trackable ledger of all units and prevents the double-spending of the same funds.
This approach works well for small groups, but it doesn't scale well. When you have a group of 10,000 participants, it's challenging to find someone trustworthy enough to manage the notepad. That's where PoW comes in. Using a combination of game theory and cryptography, PoW ensures that users aren't spending funds they don't have the right to spend. It allows anyone to update the blockchain according to the system's rules, removing the need for a trusted third party.
How does PoW work?
Transactions are not added one by one but are instead lumped into blocks. After announcing the transactions to the network, a user who creates a block will include them in a candidate block. The transactions are only valid once the candidate block gets confirmed, which means it has been added to the blockchain.
To add a block to the blockchain, miners must use their resources, specifically computing power, as required by Proof of Work. The miners’ task is to hash the blocks’ data until they find a solution to a puzzle.
In Proof of Work, miners must provide data whose hash matches certain conditions, which is done through a guessing game. They take information on all transactions they want to add, along with other important data, then hash it together with a variable piece of information called a nonce. They must hash it until they find a hash that satisfies the conditions set out by the protocol, at which point they get the right to broadcast the new block to the network.
If they find a valid hash, they will be rewarded with cryptocurrency. However, cheating is not an option, as any block that includes an invalid transaction will be automatically rejected by the network. The system ensures this through public-key cryptography, which allows users to verify whether someone has the right to move the funds they're attempting to spend.
Proof of Work is an expensive process, but it makes cheating costly and acting honestly profitable. Therefore, rational miners are expected to behave in a way that guarantees revenue. The conditions for major cryptocurrencies today are incredibly challenging to satisfy, making the process even more difficult. However, it's possible to verify that a block is valid without expending much computational power.
Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake
In recent years, there has been a growing trend of blockchains transitioning from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake (PoS) or adopting it from the start. Let’s explore the advantages of PoS over PoW to understand why more and more projects choose it.
In PoS miners are replaced by validators, who are randomly selected, and if chosen, must propose a block. If the block is valid, the validators will be rewarded with transaction fees. However, not everyone can become a validator as the protocol chooses participants based on a range of factors. To be eligible, validators must stake a predetermined amount of the blockchain's native currency. The stake serves as a security deposit, and if a validator is found to have acted dishonestly, their stake will be taken as a penalty.
One of the most significant advantages of PoS is its smaller carbon footprint. Since there's no need for high-powered mining farms in PoS, the electricity consumed is only a fraction of what is used in PoW.
Although PoS is being implemented with great enthusiasm now, it has yet to prove itself at scale. Mining is the only consensus algorithm that has secured trillions of dollars worth of transactions in just over a decade, despite being perceived as wasteful. To determine whether PoS can rival PoW's security, staking must undergo thorough testing to ensure its long-term reliability.
The double-spend problem was effectively tackled by Proof of Work, a reliable and secure solution that eliminated the need for centralized entities to prevent the same funds from being spent twice. By utilizing cryptography, hash functions, and game theory, members of a decentralized ecosystem can reach a consensus on the status of a financial ledger.