What Is Ransomware?

What Is Ransomware?

5 Min.

Ransomware is malicious software that locks a user's computer files, making them impossible to access until a ransom is paid to the attacker. Ransom payments are commonly requested in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which allow for anonymous and online transactions.If the ransom is not paid on time, the demanded amount may increase, and ultimately, the user's data might be completely destroyed. Ransomware attacks are a global problem that result in billions of dollars in ransom payments each year.


A deceitful method called ransomware has become prevalent in the field of cybercrime. This malevolent technique employs cunningly crafted software to seize control of a victim's computer system, effectively holding it hostage until a ransom is surrendered. The perpetrators behind ransomware attacks frequently insist on receiving payment in the form of cryptocurrency, particularly Bitcoin, leveraging its perceived veil of anonymity and the convenience of online transactions. Compounding the gravity of this digital menace, the malicious software utilized in ransomware attacks imposes a temporary lock on the victim's computer, with dire consequences: either the demanded ransom escalates in value, or the victim's invaluable data is irrevocably obliterated.

What Is Ransomware?

In today's interconnected world, where digital technology revolutionizes industries and fosters personalized experiences, a menacing criminal activity lurks beneath the surface. Ransomware, an insidious product of technological progress, wreaks havoc on businesses, financial institutions, government agencies, medical establishments, and numerous other organizations. Exploiting the very tools meant to empower legitimate users, malevolent actors utilize emergent technology to orchestrate online attacks driven by both amusement and financial gain.

These cybercriminals engage in data breaches, plundering individuals' personally identifiable information. The stolen data is peddled through clandestine online channels, fetching substantial sums in legal tender or cryptocurrencies. Furthermore, some assailants employ disruptive tactics like Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, wielding power to deny businesses access to their computer systems. These perpetrators brazenly demand payment in Bitcoin, effectively holding the organization hostage until the ransom is paid — a malicious variant of a DoS attack.

In 2020 alone, the global economy bore the weight of ransomware, with estimates suggesting a staggering $20 billion in losses. This formidable figure serves as a testament to the far-reaching impact and financial ramifications of this pernicious threat.

How Does Ransomware Work?

Within the intricate realm of cyber threats, malicious software, known as ransomware, operates with calculated precision. Concealed within email attachments, software, or unsecured websites, this insidious malware casts its web of encryption upon a victim's computer system. As unsuspecting users attempt to access infected programs, the ransomware springs into action, either locking the computer screen or encrypting crucial files within the system.

A full-screen window materializes, delivering a grim ultimatum. It reveals that the user's computer has been immobilized, presenting a daunting demand for money or Bitcoins to unlock the system. Accompanying this distressing revelation is a relentless countdown timer, representing the dwindling time before the hostage data is irrevocably destroyed or the ransom amount surges.

Ransomware attackers employ various channels to extort payment in their quest for ill-gotten gains. Some insist on funds wired through Western Union or transmitted via specialized text messages. Others exhibit audacious demands, requiring payment through popular gift cards like Amazon or iTunes. The range of ransomware demands spans from modest sums of a few hundred dollars to astronomical figures, reaching as high as $50,000. Once the payment is received, the hackers meticulously decrypt the files, emancipating the system from its digital captivity.

To amplify their malevolent reach, ransomware attackers harness the power of botnets—clandestine networks of compromised devices unbeknownst to their owners. Hackers seize an army of breached systems by infiltrating computers with malware that grants them control. These commandeered devices then propagate millions of compromised email attachments, ensnaring unsuspecting victims in the ransomware web. With multiple systems held captive, the assailants anticipate an exorbitant windfall, banking on a colossal payday that befits their grand scheme.

Example of Ransomware

Enterprises ensnared by the clutches of ransomware face dire consequences, with their proprietary information at risk of obliteration, operations in disarray, reputation tarnished, and finances depleted. An unsettling illustration of this menace unfolded at Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center in 2016 when the hospital fell victim to ransomware attackers. Held hostage, the hospital was coerced into paying a hefty ransom of approximately $17,000 in Bitcoins to reclaim the data of its patients.

The fallout from this incident reverberated throughout the medical center. Some patients had to be urgently transferred to alternate healthcare facilities for vital treatment. Simultaneously, the medical records system remained inaccessible for a harrowing duration of ten days, throwing the hospital's daily operations into disarray. The ramifications were vast, echoing the far-reaching impact of ransomware's nefarious grip on organizations.


Ransomware continues to pose a pervasive and alarming threat in cybercrime. It encrypts computer files and holds them hostage, until a ransom is paid, causing severe consequences for individuals and organizations. Attackers often demand payment in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, leveraging anonymity. Non-compliance may result in increased ransom or data destruction. The global economy has suffered billions of dollars in losses. The incident at Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center exemplifies the devastating impact of ransomware, disrupting healthcare operations and compromising patient well-being. Vigilance and robust cybersecurity measures are crucial in combating this menace.