What Is Rule 10b – 18?

What Is Rule 10b – 18?

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) established Rule 10B-18 with the purpose of minimizing liability for companies and their affiliated purchasers during the repurchase of the company's common stock. The provision known as Rule 10B-18 serves as a safe harbor, meaning that companies are not required to comply with its conditions. However, following its guidance on the timing, manner, price, and volume of repurchases can help companies reduce their liability. To comply with the rules, a company must not only adhere to the stated conditions but also submit more detailed information about share repurchases in their quarterly and annual SEC filings, such as Form 10-Q, Form 10-K, and Form 20-F.


Rule 10B-18 is a securities regulation created by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). It provides protection for companies and their affiliated purchasers who are involved in share repurchases. The aim is to mitigate potential liabilities arising from such transactions involving the company's common stock.

Acting as a safe harbor provision, Rule 10B-18 offers legal protection by reducing or eliminating regulatory liability under specific circumstances, provided certain conditions are adhered to. By complying with the four prescribed requirements during the repurchase of shares, a company ensures that the SEC will not classify these transactions as violations of the anti-fraud provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Rule 10B-18: A Shield for Share Repurchases

Introduced by the SEC in 1982, Rule 10B-18 serves as a voluntary mechanism for companies to authorize the repurchase of their shares, aiming to reduce regulatory liabilities. For this protection to apply, issuers must satisfy four daily conditions, carefully adhering to each requirement. In 2003, the SEC amended the rule, mandating more detailed disclosure on share repurchases through additional filings like Form 10-Q, Form 10-K, and Form 20-F.

The four conditions for liability reduction are as follows:

  1. Purchasing all shares from one broker or deal in a single day.
  2. Adhering to specific timing requirements based on average daily trading volume (ADTV) and public float value.
  3. Repurchasing shares at a price not exceeding the highest independent bid or last transaction price quoted.
  4. Limiting repurchases to less than 25% of the average daily volume.

Quarterly Form 10-Q and annual Form 10-K filings require companies to disclose crucial information, including:

  • Total number of shares purchased
  • Average price paid per share
  • Total number of shares repurchased under publicly-announced programs
  • Maximum number of shares (or maximum dollar amount) available for repurchase under these programs.

While Rule 10B-18's safe harbor protects compliant companies, all repurchases must adhere to various regulations. It is crucial to avoid using the safe harbor provision for repurchasing shares to evade federal securities laws.


Rule 10B-18 provides a safe harbor for companies during share repurchases, reducing liabilities. Adherence to the four daily conditions and detailed SEC filings ensures protection and market integrity, promoting investor confidence.

Rule 10b – 18