What Is Solana (SOL)?

What Is Solana (SOL)?

Enabling widespread acceptance of digital currency and blockchain technology, Solana emerges as a robust blockchain network, prioritizing swift payments and superior throughput. It achieves remarkable speed enhancements by employing innovative advancements such as Proof of History (PoH) and parallelized transactions. SOL, the native token, empowers users to settle trade fees and engage with smart contracts conveniently.


In the world of blockchain technology, scalability poses a significant obstacle. As networks expand, they often encounter limitations in transaction speed and confirmation times. Despite the challenge, Sol rises to the occasion while maintaining high levels of security and decentralization.

Established in 2017 under the guidance of Anatoly Yakovenko, Solana Labs spearheads a groundbreaking approach to transaction verification. Unlike Bitcoin and other specific projects grappling with sluggish transaction times, exorbitant fees, and excessive energy consumption, Solana leverages a suite of innovations. Among them, Proof of History and parallelization enable the efficient processing of thousands of transactions per second.

How Does Solana Functionate?

Solana, a third-generation proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain, harnesses a range of pioneering innovations to enable remarkable throughput, swift transactions, and economical fees:

  • Proof of History: An ingenious timestamp verification method that eliminates the need for conventional timestamps.
  • Parallelization: The capability to process multiple transactions simultaneously.
  • Tower Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT): An optimized Practical BFT version tailored to PoH.
  • Turbine: A block propagation protocol.
  • Gulf Stream: A mempool-less transaction forwarding protocol.
  • Sealevel: A parallel smart contracts runtime.
  • Pipelining: A transaction processing unit for optimized validation.
  • Cloudbreak: A horizontally-scaled accounts database.

Together, these features establish a high-performance network with 400ms block times and the ability to process thousands of transactions per second. To provide context, Bitcoin boasts a block time of approximately 10 minutes, while Ethereum clocks in at roughly 15 seconds.

SOL holders can use the blockchain's PoS consensus mechanism by staking their tokens. To gamble with it, you need to connect with compatible crypto wallets and validators who process network transactions. Successful validators can share rewards with Sol holders who have risked their assets. This rewarding system motivates validators and delegators to act in the network's best interest. Thus, Solana boasts an impressive 1800 validators and a Nakamoto coefficient of 31, signifying its robustness and decentralization.

Solana's Unique Advantages

The exceptional drive to foster affordable, abundant transactions and facilitate widespread adoption has propelled Sol to introduce a host of distinctive innovations.

Solana uses Proof of History as an alternative approach to tracking transaction orders. By hashing events and transactions using the SHA256 hash function, Solana embeds the order within the resulting chain of hashed outputs. This eliminates the need for conventional timestamps, significantly reducing block confirmation time.

Solana boasts low fees with an average transaction cost of only $0.00025. This affordability removes significant barriers to entry, countering the high gas fees experienced on other chains. Also, Solana stands out as an energy-efficient blockchain due to its streamlined transaction validation process. As it does not rely on mining like proof-of-work networks, Solana consumes fewer resources and requires less time for transaction verification.

The Solana Foundation, a non-profit organization that supports and secures the Solana network, regularly publishes third-party audits on Solana's energy impact. Solana's energy usage was compared to other blockchain projects and average household consumption, revealing its commendable efficiency.

Notable Energy Usage Statistics:

  • One Solana transaction: 508 Joules
  • Single Google search: 1,080 Joules
  • One non-voting Solana transaction: 3,290 Joules
  • One Ethereum transaction (estimated post-Merge): 144,036 Joules
  • Fully charging an iPhone 13 battery: 44,676 Joules
  • Running the entire Solana network per year: 4,056,273,936 Joules
  • Mining one Bitcoin: 5,005,764,000 Joules
  • Average US household energy usage per year: 38,574,000,000 Joules

SOL Token

SOL is Solana's native utility token, integral to the network's deflationary model. Users require it to settle transaction fees and engage with smart contracts. Furthermore, SOL holders have the opportunity to participate as network validators. Similar to Ethereum, Solana empowers developers to construct smart contracts and launch projects on its blockchain.

Built on the SPL protocol, SOL adheres to the Solana blockchain's token standard, akin to ERC-20 on Ethereum. The SOL token encompasses two primary functionalities:

  1. Facilitating payment for transaction fees associated with network usage and smart contract interactions.
  2. Enabling token staking as part of the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

The proliferation of decentralized applications (DApps) on Solana introduces novel use cases for SOL and other tokens constructed using the SPL standard.

Solana Ecosystem

Since its mainnet-beta launch in 2020, the Solana ecosystem has experienced tremendous growth, attracting a vast number of developers and active users. The integration of renowned entities into Solana's framework has further solidified its position. Discord enables users to connect their profiles with Solana Wallets, while ASICS leverages Solana Pay for seamless, limited-edition shoe purchases. Solana's exceptional transaction speed and high throughput have positioned it as the preferred network for numerous Web3 applications, including:

NFTs: The flourishing Solana NFT ecosystem benefits from swift transaction times and nominal fees. Over 150,000 creators have minted over 22.7 million Solana-based NFTs, supported by Meta properties like Facebook and Instagram. Prominent projects include the Degenerate Ape Academy, Okay Bears, and Solana Monkey Business.

Payments: Solana Pay's protocol has fostered a frictionless, permissionless payment infrastructure, enabling settlement within seconds. In Stripe's recent announcement of a fiat-to-crypto on-ramp, 11 out of the 16 mentioned launch partners were built on Solana.

Games: Currently, more than 100 games are live and playable on Solana.

DeFi: Solana's rapid transaction times have made it an ideal platform for decentralized finance (DeFi), resulting in over $150 million raised by Solana-based DeFi projects in 2022. Noteworthy projects include OpenBook, a community-run order book, and Jupiter Aggregator.

DAOs: The proliferation of decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) on Solana has sparked immense activity, with 8,489 DAO proposals and 34,484 total votes recorded.

Mobile: The Solana ecosystem has launched Saga, the first mobile phone powered by the Solana Mobile Stack, paving the way for innovative mobile-first crypto development. Developers received the first Saga devices in December 2022, marking a significant milestone.

The remarkable growth and diversification within the Solana ecosystem showcase its unwavering commitment to innovation and its position as a leading force in the blockchain industry.

Solana's Future Endeavors

The Breakpoint conference held by the Solana Foundation in 2022 unveiled a range of upcoming projects that will shape the ecosystem's future. These include:

Firedancer: Jump Crypto is actively developing new open-source Solana core software, introducing a second validator client capable of processing 1.2 million transactions per second in a test environment as of November. This advancement will further expand Solana's already impressive throughput.

Mobile: Anticipate the public availability of Saga devices in 2023. Additionally, Solana Mobile will introduce a fee-free Web3-centric DApp Store in January 2023, providing users with a seamless experience.

Network Upgrades: Solana has implemented various upgrades to enhance network performance. Significant advancements include QUIC, stake-weighted quality of service, and fee markets. Anatoly Yakovenko, co-founder of Solana Labs, has outlined his vision for further network improvements.

The Solana ecosystem's relentless pursuit of innovation and advancement ensures an exciting trajectory that will shape the blockchain landscape in the future.


Since its emergence in 2020, Solana has solidified its position as a thriving and sustainable ecosystem. Embraced by numerous projects and users, its popularity continues to soar, indicating promising growth ahead.

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