What Is the EV/2P Ratio?

What Is the EV/2P Ratio?

4 Min.

Understanding a company's ability to support its operations and growth with its resources is crucial for analysts. One way to assess this is through the enterprise value compared to proven and probable reserves metric. This metric is especially important in the oil and gas industry, where the EV/2P ratio is used to determine a company's value. The EV/2P ratio is calculated by dividing the enterprise value (EV) by the proven and probable (2P) reserves. Comparing a company's EV/2P ratio with those of similar companies and its historical values is essential in making informed investment decisions.


The EV/2P ratio is a fundamental metric in assessing the worth of oil and gas enterprises. It is derived by dividing the enterprise value (EV) by the proven and probable (2P) reserves, where EV signifies the comprehensive value of the company. The 2P reserves pertain to anticipated recoverable energy reserves like oil.

The Formula for the EV/2P Ratio 

EV/2P = Enterprise Value / 2P Reserves


  • 2P Reserves=Total proven and probable reserves
  • Enterprise Value=MC+Total Debt−TC
  • MC=Market capitalization
  • TC=Total cash and cash equivalents

In this equation, 2P Reserves encompass the entire proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves are highly likely to be recovered, while probable reserves are slightly less certain for recovery compared to proved reserves. The combined value of proven and probable reserves is represented by 2P.

To calculate the EV/2P Ratio:

  1. Obtain or compute the enterprise value (EV) of the company. Calculate it by combining market capitalization (MC) and total debt while subtracting total cash.
  2. Substitute the EV value into the numerator.
  3. Substitute the 2P reserves value into the denominator and divide it by EV.

Understanding EV/2P Ratio: Unveiling Oil and Gas Valuation Insights

The EV/2P ratio, comparing enterprise value to proven and probable reserves, offers valuable insights for analysts evaluating a company's operational and growth support from its resources. However, it's best not to rely on this ratio alone due to varying reserve types. Yet, it proves to be a significant metric in cases of limited cash flow information.

Reserves are categorized into proven (1P), probable (P50), or possible, with the combination of proven and probable referred to as 2P. The EV/2P ratio, signaling a premium for oil in reserves, aids in identifying potential undervaluation or overvaluation of a company.

Comparable to common valuation ratios like enterprise value or P/E ratios, the EV/2P ratio provides a multiple perspective on a company's value in relation to earnings or assets. Analyzing it against peers and historical trends aids investors in discerning a company's valuation status: undervalued, overvalued, or fairly valued.

Illustrating the EV/2P Ratio: A Numerical Scenario

Consider an oil company with an enterprise value of $2 billion and proven and probable reserves of 100 million barrels:

EV/2P=$2 Billion / $100 Million=20

This results in an EV/2P ratio of 20, signifying a 20 multiple for the company. In essence, the company is appraised at 20 times its enterprise value in relation to 2P reserves. However, determining if this multiple is high, low, or equitable necessitates a comparative analysis with other oil companies within the same industry.

Comparing Enterprise Value Ratios: EV/2P vs. EV/EBITDA

Enterprise Multiple, often measured as the ratio of Enterprise Value (EV) to Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA), signifies a significant metric within the financial landscape. It gauges a company's worth while disregarding debt, offering a clear perspective on its valuation.

In contrast, the EV/2P ratio, while utilizing Enterprise Value in its computation, diverges by incorporating Proven and Probable (2P) reserves rather than EBITDA. This ratio holds particular significance in evaluating the potential growth prospects of oil companies, leveraging the likely recovery of these reserves to assess a company's future prospects.

Understanding EV/2P Ratio Constraints

The EV/2P ratio incorporates the entire debt in its computation, aligning with the encompassing enterprise value approach. Oil firms frequently bear substantial debt, a customary practice in this sector, employed to fund various necessities such as oil rigs, equipment, and exploration expenditures. Consequently, this surplus debt tends to elevate the EV valuation of oil companies significantly compared to industries with lesser debt burdens. Investors must exercise discernment, cognizant of the distinct capital compositions prevalent in oil and gas enterprises, especially when applying valuation metrics like the EV/2P ratio.


The EV/2P ratio is a vital tool for evaluating the value of oil and gas enterprises. It provides essential insights for analysts in understanding a company's capacity to support its operations and growth with its resources. While the ratio is valuable, it should not be the sole metric for decision-making due to variations in reserve types. By comparing a company's EV/2P ratio with peers and historical data, investors can better assess its valuation status. The numerical scenario illustrates how this ratio works, but a comparative analysis with industry peers is essential for a comprehensive evaluation. Lastly, it's important to consider the unique debt structures in the oil and gas industry when interpreting the EV/2P ratio.

EV/2P Ratio
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