Bitcoin Mining in a Nutshell

Bitcoin Mining in a Nutshell

Bitcoin mining involves verifying and adding transactions to the blockchain. Miners attempt to guess a large number within specific parameters and receive new bitcoins and transaction fees as rewards for their successful guesses.

Initially, individuals could mine using personal computers. However, profitable mining now demands specialized rigs. To overcome the challenges of solo mining, many miners choose to join pools, which enhance their chances of obtaining block rewards. These rewards are distributed proportionally among pool members.


Bitcoin mining plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the blockchain by validating legitimate transactions. It was introduced as an innovative solution to establish trust within a trustless environment, making it a fundamental aspect of Bitcoin's security model.

The concept of mining and earning BTC sounds appealing. Although the era of CPU mining is no longer viable, mining involvement doesn't always necessitate owning physical mining equipment. However, before determining if mining is suitable for you, let's briefly explore the workings of Bitcoin mining.

What Is Bitcoin Mining?

When a user initiates a Bitcoin transaction, it requires verification and confirmation by other network users known as nodes. Miners undertake the task of gathering new pending transactions and organizing them into a candidate block, which is a block awaiting validation.

The objective of a miner is to discover a valid block hash for their candidate block. A block hash is a distinctive alphanumeric string serving as a unique identifier for each block. Here’s an example of a block hash:


To monitor the Bitcoin network, you can utilize platforms like or other network observers.

To generate a new block hash, miners must collect the previous block's hash, their candidate block's data, and a nonce, and then input them into a hash function. However, finding the right nonce that, when combined with the data, produces a block hash starting with a specific number of zeros is the challenge. The required number of zeros varies based on the mining difficulty. A valid block hash serves as proof that the miner has completed the necessary work to validate their candidate block, demonstrating Proof of Work.

Once the miner assembles the pending transactions and constructs their candidate block, the only variable they can modify is the nonce. This is where mining rigs come into play. Through a process of trial and error, mining machines continuously change the nonce and hash the combined data until they discover a solution for that block—a hash that begins with the specified number of zeros.

When a miner successfully finds a valid hash, they can validate their candidate block and receive the Bitcoin rewards. Simultaneously, the transactions included in that block transition from pending to confirmed in the blockchain.

How Much Do Miners Earn?

In Bitcoin mining, each new block rewards the miner with bitcoins generated through the block subsidy and transaction fees. The block reward primarily comprises the block subsidy, and it is commonly referred to as the block reward, disregarding the fees.

The block subsidy for Bitcoin started at 50 BTC in 2009 and is halved every 210,000 blocks, equivalent to around four years. The previous halving events resulted in a reduction to 25 BTC in 2012, 12.5 BTC in 2016, and 6.25 BTC in 2020. The next halving event is anticipated to occur in 2024.

When evaluating mining equipment and profitability, several factors come into play. The hash rate, which measures the speed at which a mining rig can generate and test random nonces, is a crucial metric. A higher hash rate allows for faster testing of these inputs. Energy consumption is another significant metric to consider. If the electricity expenses exceed the value earned from mining, profitability becomes unviable.

Before You Start Mining Bitcoins

Bitcoin mining is open to anyone due to its decentralized and open-source nature. In the earlier days, personal computers were sufficient for mining new blocks. However, as the mining difficulty increased, more powerful machines became necessary.

While it's still technically possible to mine bitcoins using a personal computer, the likelihood of finding a valid hash is extremely low. The process of computing the hash function itself is fast, but generating the vast number of random inputs required takes significantly more time. That's why specialized hardware is now essential before attempting to become a profitable miner.

Mining Equipment

When it comes to mining cryptocurrencies, there are various options available such as using a CPU, GPU, FPGA, or ASIC machine. GPU cards can still be utilized for mining certain altcoins, while FPGA machines might be suitable depending on the mining algorithm, difficulty, and electricity expenses. However, for Bitcoin mining, ASIC mining rigs are considered the most efficient choice.

  1. CPU (central processing unit):
    • Versatile chip responsible for distributing instructions in a computer.
    • Not efficient for cryptocurrency mining due to lower processing power compared to other hardware.
  2. GPU (graphics processing unit):
    • Primarily used for graphics processing and displaying on screens.
    • Can divide complex tasks into smaller ones, enhancing performance.
    • Some altcoins can be mined with GPUs, depending on the mining algorithm and difficulty.
  3. FPGA (field-programmable gate array):
    • Programmable chips that can be customized for various functions and applications.
    • More affordable than ASICs.
    • Less efficient for Bitcoin mining but can be suitable for certain altcoins depending on the mining algorithm and electricity costs.
  4. ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit):
    • Computers, designed specifically for a single purpose, such as mining cryptocurrencies.
    • Less customizable but highly efficient for mining.
    • More expensive than FPGAs but offer higher hash rates and energy efficiency.
    • Considered the most efficient option for Bitcoin mining.

These hardware options provide miners with choices depending on their specific needs, the cryptocurrency being mined, and the level of efficiency and customization required.

Mining Pools

Mining a block on your own has become highly unlikely due to the increased difficulty. However, you can increase your chances of earning bitcoins by joining a crypto mining pool. Pooling your computing power with other miners allows for collective mining efforts. When the pool successfully mines a block, each miner receives a portion of the mined bitcoins. The rewards distributed by the pool are proportional to the mining power contributed by each participant.

Cloud Mining

An alternative to engaging in the technical aspects of mining is to join a cloud-mining farm, where the responsibility for hardware and software lies with the farm owners. In cloud mining, you essentially pay someone else to mine on your behalf. In return, the farm owner is expected to share the profits with you. However, it's important to note that this option carries significant risks, as there is no guarantee of returns on your investment. It is crucial to exercise caution as many cloud mining services have turned out to be scams.


Understanding the basics of Bitcoin mining is important if you want to get involved. With the right hardware and software, anyone can participate and contribute to the Bitcoin network's security. However, mining requires a significant initial investment and carries risks. Your returns depend on various factors like market conditions, energy costs, and hardware advancements. It's crucial to research and make informed decisions before investing in mining equipment.


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