Understanding the Best-Price Rule (Rule 14D-10)

Understanding the Best-Price Rule (Rule 14D-10)

The Best-Price Rule (Rule 14D-10), regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), ensures that in a tender offer, all security holders receive the highest consideration paid to any other holder. This rule underwent amendments in 2006 for clarity.


The Best-Price Rule is a critical regulation established by the SEC in the United States. It serves as a safeguard to ensure fairness and equitable treatment for all holders of securities involved in a tender offer. This rule is designed to prevent any preferential treatment that may arise during such financial transactions.

Definition of Best-Price Rule

The Best-Price Rule can be succinctly defined as follows: It is a regulation enforced by the SEC, dictating that the compensation offered to any security holder in a tender offer must be equal to the highest compensation given to any other security holder involved in the same offer. The primary objective of this rule is to maintain parity and fairness among all security holders participating in the tender offer.

Amendments to Rule 14D-10

The Best-Price Rule changed over time to deal with issues that came up during tender offers. These issues included employee compensation, severance packages, and other benefits during a change of control. Some people were worried about giving extra compensation to high-level employees who owned securities, and whether that meant everyone else with securities should also get the same benefits. To tackle these concerns, the SEC made important changes to Rule 14D-10 in December 2006. The goal was to make the rule clearer and deal with complicated compensation arrangements during tender offers.

First Amendment

The initial amendment focused on rephrasing the central language of the rule. It now reads: "Consideration paid to any security holder for securities tendered in the tender offer is the highest consideration paid to any other security holder for securities tendered in the tender offer." This revision emphasizes that the rule only pertains to compensation for securities tendered. It excludes any compensatory agreements related to the amount of consideration owed to security holders.

Second Amendment

The Second Amendment introduced important exemptions to Rule 14D-10. It specified that any payments made under an arrangement must be for "past services performed, future services to be performed, or future services to be refrained from performing, by the security holder (and matters incidental thereto)." Additionally, this compensation should not be "calculated based on the number of securities tendered or to be tendered in the tender offer by the security holder." The purpose of this amendment was to clarify which compensation arrangements are covered by the rule.

Third Amendment

The third and final amendment added a safe harbor provision to Rule 14D-10. This provision applies to compensation arrangements that have been approved by a committee of independent directors. The SEC's goal is to provide a structured framework for compensation agreements during tender offers. This ensures that they are reviewed and endorsed by an impartial committee, adding layer of protection and fairness.


The Best-Price Rule plays a crucial role in maintaining fairness and equity in tender offers within the securities market. Its amendments in 2006, focusing on language clarification, exemptions for compensatory arrangements, and the introduction of a safe harbor provision, have further refined and strengthened its ability to ensure equal treatment for all security holders involved. These changes continue to uphold the principle of fairness and transparency in the financial markets, aligning with the SEC's commitment to investor protection and market integrity.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Best-Price Rule (Rule 14D-10)
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