What Are Firm Quotes?

What Are Firm Quotes?

Broker-dealers and market makers play important roles in the securities markets as they handle customer orders and trade for their own accounts. To ensure compliance with SEC regulations, companies must adhere to specific rules for publishing quotes and processing customer orders as outlined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. If a market maker fails to abide by the quoted bid and asks prices for a minimum amount, it is considered a severe breach of industry regulations called backing away. To swiftly address complaints about backing away, FINRA employs an automated surveillance system that operates in real-time.


In finance, a market maker provides a fixed quote that shows a consistent willingness to either buy or sell a security or currency. This quote sets fixed bid and ask prices, exempt from any potential cancellations. The core essence of a firm quote lies in its role as a steadfast commitment from the market maker to furnish liquidity to counterparties, contributing to the stability and efficiency of the market.

What Are Firm Quotes?

Even within the bustling trading desks of Wall Street, firm quotes play a crucial role. Whenever a customer contacts the desk seeking a live market for stocks, options, or ETFs, the trader meticulously assesses various elements before providing the quote. Once the firm quote is delivered, the customer can either execute the transaction at the designated price or take no action. When evaluating the price for a block, market-making desks consider an array of factors such as asset liquidity, event risks, positioning, and market news. This intricate amalgamation shapes the quoted price, reflecting a comprehensive analysis by the desk.

How Do Firm Quotes Work?

In the securities markets, broker-dealers and market makers play vital roles, executing orders for customers and engaging in proprietary trading. To ensure fair practices, these entities adhere to specific regulations set by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Operating under SEC Rule 11Ac1-1, a firm quote is a non-negotiable offer presented by a market maker. It follows a take-it-or-leave-it principle, requiring the market maker to execute any order submitted to them at a price and size that matches or exceeds their published firm quote.

Failure to honor the quoted bid and ask prices for a minimum quantity is a serious violation known as "backing away," as outlined in FINRA Rule 5220. Market participants are obligated to stand by their quotes, ensuring a "bonafide quote" is posted and offering to buy or sell securities at the stated price, demonstrating their readiness to transact.

Firm Quotes in Action

To grasp the concept of firm quotes, consider the following examples that showcase their practical application.

In one scenario, a market maker broadcasts a firm bid of $25 for a volume of 10,000 shares. This announcement signifies their commitment to purchase precisely 10,000 shares at the stated price of $25. Unlike nominal quotes, where negotiation remains possible, firm quotes establish fixed terms.

Another instance involves a buy-side firm contacting a Wall Street trading desk to ascertain the pricing for a substantial block of 1,000,000 shares in an ETF. The ETF's screen display reflects a price range of 83.48 x 83.52. Occasionally, the customer refrains from disclosing their trading direction, leaving the market maker unaware. After conducting their internal assessment, the market maker issues a quote of 83.45 x 83.53 for both sides, encompassing the 1,000,000 shares. As the customer intends to buy, they accept the market maker's offer of 83.53, securing the entire million-share transaction.


Broker-dealers and market makers have vital roles in the securities markets, adhering to SEC regulations for fair practices. Failure to honor quoted prices is a severe violation known as backing away, monitored by FINRA. Firm quotes represent non-negotiable commitments for liquidity provision. Real-life examples illustrate their practical application in precise transaction execution.

Firm Quotes