What Is Free-Float Methodology?
The free-float methodology is a technique utilized to calculate the market capitalization of the companies underlying a stock market index. This method involves multiplying the equity's price by the number of shares that are freely available in the market. It differs from the full-market capitalization method, which considers both active and inactive shares while determining market capitalization. The free-float method excludes locked-in shares, like those held by insiders, promoters, and governments.
The free-float approach, a technique for determining the market capitalization of constituent firms in a stock market index, differs significantly from the traditional full-market capitalization method. In this method, the market capitalization is computed by multiplying the prevailing equity price by the readily tradable shares in the market. Unlike the full-market capitalization method, which considers all shares (both active and inactive), the free-float methodology excludes restricted shares, such as those owned by insiders, promoters, and governmental entities.
Enhancing Market Capitalization Computation: The Free-Float Approach
The free-float methodology, also known as float-adjusted capitalization, is a preferred method for calculating market capitalization, as opposed to the comprehensive full-market capitalization approach.
Full-market capitalization encompasses all shares issued by a company, including unexercised stock allocated to insiders through stock option compensation plans, promoters, and governments. Applying full market capitalization can significantly alter index returns due to company stock option issuance strategies variations.
In contrast, the free-float methodology provides a more accurate representation of market dynamics, considering only actively tradable shares. Consequently, it yields a smaller market capitalization than the full market capitalization method.
Indexes employing the free-float methodology tend to reflect market trends more faithfully, focusing exclusively on tradable shares. Moreover, this approach fosters a broader representation within the index, mitigating concentration among a few companies.
Calculating Market Capitalization With Free-Float Method
To determine market capitalization using the free-float methodology, employ the following formula:
FFM = Share Price x (Total Shares Issued – Restricted Shares)
Major global indexes, including the S&P 500, MSCI World, and FTSE 100, utilize the free-float methodology for evaluation. Additionally, a notable correlation exists between free-float methodology and stock volatility. Higher free-floating shares tend to coincide with lower stock volatility due to increased trading activity, while a reduced free-float leads to heightened volatility. Institutional investors typically favor companies with larger free-floats, allowing for significant share transactions with minimal price impact.
Index Weighting Methods: Price vs. Market Cap
Indexes are typically weighted using either price or market capitalization. These methods determine how the returns of individual stocks within an index are weighed. Market capitalization weighting is the predominant approach, with the S&P 500 Index being a prime example in the United States.
The choice of weighting methodology has a substantial impact on an index's overall returns. Price-weighted indexes calculate returns by assigning weights based on the individual stock prices within the index. In this method, higher-priced stocks exert greater influence on the index's returns, regardless of their market capitalizations. Price-weighted and capitalization-weighted indexes diverge significantly in their weighting methodology. Price-weighted indexes are rare in the trading market, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) being one of the few examples.
Free-Float Methodology Example
Consider stock ABC, which is currently trading at $100 per share, with a total of 125,000 shares outstanding. Of these, 25,000 shares are restricted and held by significant institutional investors and company management, rendering them untradable. Employing the free-float methodology, ABC's market capitalization is calculated as follows: 100 (share price) x 100,000 (total tradable shares) = $10 million.
The free-float methodology is crucial for assessing market capitalization in stock market indices. Unlike the full-market capitalization method, it multiplies stock prices by freely tradable shares, excluding locked-in shares. This method is widely used in global indexes like the S&P 500, impacting returns and investor preferences.
Understanding index weighting, whether by price or market capitalization, is vital as it significantly influences returns. While price-weighted indexes like DJIA exist, market capitalization-weighted indexes like the S&P 500 dominate due to their broader representation.