What Is Tendermint?

Embracing an innovative approach to blockchain development, Tendermint offers a flexible alternative to the established structures we know and appreciate. As a developer, this presents you with a dual avenue: either confine your applications within the confines of a restrictive environment or embark on the path of code forking to forge your own blockchain. However, the latter route is far from a straightforward endeavor, as it entails not only commencing a network but also unraveling the intricate web of selecting an apt consensus mechanism.

Enter Tendermint – an open-source software solution designed specifically for launching blockchains. Notably, this groundbreaking technology empowers developers to create applications using any programming language, liberating them from prior constraints. Yet, Tendermint's prowess extends beyond individual blockchains; it facilitates seamless communication and interaction with other interconnected blockchain networks.


Embarking on creating a robust cryptocurrency or blockchain network encompasses far more than mere database initialization. It demands a meticulous equilibrium, navigating the intricate interplay of incentives and compromises involving security, decentralization, and scalability.

Not surprisingly, countless teams have delved into various approaches, each aiming to construct the most fortified blockchain ecosystems. In the realm of blockchain development, one such approach stands out: Tendermint. In this comprehensive article, we will delve into the depths of Tendermint, unraveling its distinctive attributes and exploring its potential as a pioneering solution.

What Is Tendermint?

Revitalizing our understanding of Tendermint requires a moment of reflection upon key blockchain concepts. Before delving deeper into its intricacies, let us recapitulate the fundamental tenets.

Comprehending the Essence of Blockchain Architecture

Tendermint, much like Bitcoin and Ethereum, belongs to the realm of blockchain stacks. It transcends the confines of a mere database and encompasses the peer-to-peer network of nodes, their interactions, and the realm of transactions and smart contracts. The ultimate objective lies in achieving a consensus on the state of the system, irrespective of the underlying trust dynamics.

Contemporary prominent blockchains have unlocked the enigma that enables this achievement. However, they often rely on monolithic architectures, where interconnected and interdependent components hinder flexibility. A modular architecture, on the other hand, empowers developers to modify individual components without fearing cascading disruptions. In a monolithic structure, ensuring compatibility across all members when upgrading a single element becomes paramount. Now, armed with this distinction, let us explore the essence of the Tendermint protocol.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Bitcoin's groundbreaking innovation in solving the Byzantine Generals' Problem remains a hallmark achievement. While we shall refrain from delving into the intricacies of the problem itself, it revolves around distributed communication between participants. In this scenario, participants remain uncertain about the integrity of their counterparts' information or potential modifications to transmitted messages. Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) characterizes a system's ability to achieve consensus despite such challenges.

In a decentralized setting, the importance of this achievement cannot be overstated. Cryptocurrencies lacking Byzantine fault tolerance necessitate the involvement of a centralized authority, thus defeating the essence of decentralization. Like many other digital currencies, Bitcoin overcomes this hurdle by leveraging the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm.

Unveiling the Three Foundational Layers of a Blockchain

Having assimilated the distinctions between monolithic and modular architecture and grasped the significance of Byzantine fault tolerance in decentralized cryptocurrency networks, let us now delve into the three primary layers that constitute a blockchain: the application, consensus, and networking layers.

The consensus and networking layers are conduits for network nodes to communicate and agree upon a shared set of facts. Meanwhile, the application layer empowers users to engage in various activities, spanning decentralized applications and smart contracts in Ethereum or customized transactions within the Bitcoin ecosystem.

Tendermint Core

Before delving into the captivating intricacies of Tendermint Core, let us clarify the terminology. For this discussion, "Tendermint" and "Tendermint Core" will be used interchangeably, focusing solely on the technological aspects.

It is crucial to differentiate between Tendermint as a company, founded by Jae Kwon, the esteemed developer who authored the original whitepaper, and Tendermint Core, the actual software at the heart of the company's endeavors. This remarkable software comprises two key components: the core consensus engine, known as Tendermint Core, and the application interface, known as ABCI.

Harnessing the Power of Tendermint Core

At its core, Tendermint Core is a fault-tolerant system that establishes a synchronized state across a distributed network, effectively functioning as an expansive, shared computer. As long as at least two-thirds of the participants maintain honesty, seamless operations ensue. However, one might argue that such characteristics are synonymous with any blockchain. So, what sets Tendermint Core apart?

Firstly, the consensus mechanism relies on the innovative Proof of Stake (PoS) approach. During each period, a random node from a validator set assumes the responsibility of proposing the subsequent block, following a round-robin system. Upon approval from the other validators, the new block is appended, ensuring instant finality. Unlike Bitcoin or Ethereum, users are not required to wait for confirmations to validate their transactions.

Yet, there is more to discover. Tendermint Core's architecture boasts modularity, effectively disentangling the application layer from the consensus and networking layers. In simpler terms, developers can seamlessly integrate their own application layer into the stack, unencumbered by incentives or consensus algorithms concerns.

While end-users may find this aspect less intriguing, it presents an exciting opportunity for developers. Leveraging the existing framework enables developers to dive headfirst into application development without the arduous task of bootstrapping an entire network. The blockchain's data can be effortlessly channeled to the integrated layer, empowering developers to craft software using their preferred programming language.

Unleashing the Power of the Application Blockchain Interface (ABCI)

We focus on the Application Blockchain Interface, affectionately known as ABCI, to comprehend the true magic. Imagine this as the GPIO pins on a Raspberry Pi computer, allowing you to connect many third-party components, from humble LEDs to sophisticated plant irrigation systems. Similarly, the ABCI serves as the pivotal boundary delineating the blockchain from the applications operating atop it, empowering developers to interface and unleash the full potential of Tendermint Core seamlessly.

The Remarkable Advantages of Tendermint Core Unveiled

The extraordinary capabilities of Tendermint Core unveil a realm of endless possibilities. Its ability to separate the application interface from the consensus mechanism bestows unparalleled flexibility upon decentralized applications, enabling seamless integration of diverse programming languages into their business logic.

Power of Ethermint

To truly grasp the potential within reach, one need only examine the remarkable case of Ethermint. This groundbreaking project dared to embrace the Ethereum codebase, shedding the Proof of Work mechanism while seamlessly integrating the Ethereum Virtual Machine atop the Tendermint foundation.

The implications were nothing short of extraordinary. Firstly, Ethereum developers could effortlessly migrate their existing smart contracts to this new engine or craft new agreements utilizing the Solidity language. In addition to providing full Ethereum functionality, Ethermint serves as a PoS-based Ethereum, offering a tantalizing glimpse into the forthcoming Casper implementation anticipated within Ethereum 2.0.

Blockchain Interoperability

The allure of a vast interconnected network of blockchains is a captivating prospect that draws many enthusiasts to the realm of Tendermint-based protocols. Blockchain interoperability, a long-awaited breakthrough in the cryptocurrency space, holds the promise of creating cross-compatibility among countless individual blockchains.

Considerable efforts have been dedicated to developing the Cosmos SDK, an extraordinary open-source framework that empowers individuals to forge application-specific public or private blockchains. These seamlessly integrate into the broader Cosmos network through the ingenious Cosmos Hub, fostering harmonious communication among various chains.

The Cosmos SDK has given birth to many renowned projects, each leveraging its capabilities to realize its vision. Notable names include BNB Smart Chain (BSC), KAVA, Band Protocol, Terra, and IRISnet. These cutting-edge ventures stand as a testament to the boundless potential inherent in the Cosmos SDK, driving the expansion and evolution of the interconnected blockchain landscape.


Tendermint, an esteemed blockchain engine, has captivated the interest of countless stakeholders within the cryptocurrency realm, ranging from developers to end-users. Should this software persist in its upward trajectory, it holds the remarkable potential to become the foundational pillar of a revolutionary "internet of blockchains." As evident from the existing landscape, a select few visionary projects have already embraced the Cosmos SDK, propelling us closer to realizing this grand vision.